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Advanced Traffic Stops

Are you looking to elevate your officers’ legal knowledge and protect your department from costly lawsuits? Look no further than our Advanced Traffic Stops course. This comprehensive training program is designed to empower law enforcement professionals with the skills and knowledge needed to conduct proactive and legally defensible traffic stops. By investing in Blue to Gold, you are investing in the safety and success of your officers and your department.

In our fast-paced instruction, we use real-world case law to delve into the legal aspects of searches and seizures in federal and state-specific jurisdictions, with a specific focus on traffic stops. Our goal is to provide officers with a deeper understanding of important case law related to traffic stops, emphasizing the significance of consent, exceptions, and warrants in any search or seizure. We equip your officers with the tools they need to make confident, informed decisions on the job.

By completing our Advanced Traffic Stops course, your officers will:

– Gain a thorough understanding of important case law related to traffic stops, ensuring they are up-to-date with the latest legal standards and requirements.

– Learn about the rules surrounding the six most common motor vehicle searches, enabling them to navigate these situations effectively and lawfully.

– Reduce or eliminate the risk of lawsuits by conducting traffic stops in a professional and legally defensible manner.

– Establish good case law, setting a solid foundation for successful prosecutions and protecting the integrity of your department.

Our training modules cover a wide range of crucial topics, including the history of the motor vehicle exception, the Jones decision, pretext stops under Whren, the scope of a traffic stop, involuntary transportation, questioning occupants, gaining lawful consent to search, and the legal considerations surrounding warrantless vehicle searches, including protective sweeps, searches incident to arrest, inventories, K9 sniffs, and probable cause searches.

At Blue to Gold, our training is high-energy, interactive, and engaging. We understand the importance of keeping officers motivated and actively involved in the learning process. Upon completion of the course, all students will receive a completion certificate and our Search & Seizure Survival Guide, serving as a valuable reference for future use.

Don’t miss this opportunity to empower yourself and your colleagues with the skills and knowledge needed to navigate the legal complexities of traffic stops with confidence.

Join us for our Advanced Traffic Stops course and ensure your officers are equipped to handle any situation that arises on the road. Invest in their professional development and the success of your department.

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Course Introduction

  1. Instructor introduction.
  2. I’m going to help you become more proficient in the constitutional law most applicable to traffic stops.
  3. Explain the course objective.
    1. Recognize how the Fourth Amendment applies to each situation.
    2. Demonstrate the understanding of reasonable suspicion and how toapply that to traffic stops.
    3. Demonstrating an understanding of actions than can and cannot betaken with vehicle occupants.
    4. Translate the Fourth Amendment to make good case law.
  4. Encourage attendees to ask questions and share feedback with other attendees.
  5. Explain that certificates will be emailed after the class and each student will be registered in the Blue to Gold University.
  6. Go over the three disclaimers:
    1. Laws and agency standard operating procedures may be more restrictive. Blue to Gold teaching the federal standard unless otherwise stated. Therefore, students must know their state and local requirements in addition to the federal standard.
    2. If students have any doubts about their actions, ask a supervisor or legal advisor.
    3. The course is not legal advice, but legal education. Therefore, nothing we teach should be interpreted as legal advice. Check with your agency’s legal advisor for legal advice.

Preface

1. The Three Golden Rules of Search & Seizure

  1. Rule #1: The more you articulate why you did something, the more likely it will be upheld in court.
  2. Rule #2: The more serious the crime, the more reasonable your actions are likely to be viewed.
  3. Rule #3: Conduct all warrantless searches and seizures in the same manner as if you had judicial pre-approval.

Module One – Major Cases

1. 1925 Carroll v. US
2. 1970 Chambers v. Maroney
3. Why Courts Allow So Many Warrantless Vehicle Searches

a. Vehicles can take off before search warrant is obtained.
b. Vehicles are highly regulated and that means less privacy. c. Roadside searches are often better for suspects.
d. Judges wouldn’t get any sleep if warrants were required.

4. 1973 Cady v. Dombrowski
5. 1976 S. Dakota v. Opperman 6. 1985 California v. Carney
7. 2012 US v. Jones

Module Two – Every search and seizure requires C.R.E.W.

1. C.R.E.W Stands for Consent, Recognized Exception, and Warrant

2. Example: US v. Richmond – The Wobbling Tire

3. Example: State v. Speights

4. Example: Taylor v. City of Saginaw

Module Three – Pretext Stops

1. Courts look at objective facts.
2. Example: Whren v. US
3. Watch the Video: Pretext Traffic Stops

Module 4 – Scope of a Traffic Stop

1. Questioning Occupants

2. Prolonging the Stop

a. Example: Rodriguez v. US
b. Example: Arizona v. Johnson
c. Pro Tip – Rodriguez is all about time not topic.

  1. Best Practice: Permitted – Routine questions rapport/de-escalation travel plans “breadcrumbs.” Requires R.S. – Intrusive questions, unrelated crimes, hunches and accusations.
  2. Checking license stats, warrants against driver, and inspecting paperwork are all related to stop.
    1. Example: U.S. v. Campbell
    2. Example: U.S. v. Holt
    3. Per U.S. v. Mason
    4. Example: State v. Smith
    5. Asking generally if illegal items are in the vehicle relates to highwaysafety.
    6. Watch the Video: Obstructed View and Unrelated Questions
    7. Example: Driver was stopped for faulty blinker.
    8. Watch the Video: Unrelated Drug Questions
  3. Completed Unrelated Questions May Occur With:

a. Consent

b. Unavoidable Downtime

c. Multi-tasking

d. Backup Officer

e. Per People v. White

Module Five – Passengers

  1. Identifying Passengers
  2. Controlling Passengers

a. Example: Brendlin v. California

b. Example: Arizona v. Johnson

c. Example: Maryland v. Wilson

  1. Legal Rule
  2. Best Practice

Module Six – Consent to Search

1. Why Suspects Consent to Search

a. Can explain away evidence

b. Hope evidence won’t be found

c. Appear cooperative

d. Consent is consistent with innocence

e. May feel discovery is inevitable

2. Free and Voluntary Consent

3. Facts to Consider

a. Threats or Misinterpretations

b. Show of Force

c. Allowing Person to Watch

d. Advising He Can Deny Consent

e. Level of Intrusion

4. Common Authority

a. Legal Rule

b. Pro Tip

c. The “Piggyback Rule”

d. Examples

5. Don’t Exceed Scope

a. Legal Rule

b. Pro Tip

c. Example: US v. Gregoire

6. Your Words Matter

  1. Search
  2. Example: People v. Cantor
  3. Example: US v. Elliott
  4. Consent is automatically withdrawn when you ask to search for aparticular thing which is found.
  5. A destructive search requires explicit permission.
  6. Example: US v. Osage
  7. Examples
  8. Examples

Module Seven – Community Caretaking

1. Community caretaking encounters are not criminal investigations.

2. Example: State v. Cryan

3. Example: State v. Elders

4. Example: State v. Martinez

5. Example: Comm. V. Livingstone

6. What would you articulate?

a. Example: Comm. V. Robertson

Module Eight – Warrantless Searches

1. Six Warrantless Searches

a. Weapons

i. Pro Tip

ii. Three Justifications

iii. Example: State v. Chang

iv. Watch the Video: Driver Grabs Another Gun from Car

v. Factors to Consider

vi. Example: US v. Arnold vii. Often Up held Patdowns

viii. Watch the Video: Officer Conducts Illegal Patdown

b. Search Incident to Arrest

i. Example: Arizona v. Gant

ii. Example: People v. Sims

c. Evidence Related Search

i. You arrest a driver for a DUI, can you search car for evidence?

ii. Watch video:“Traffic Stop: Warrant”

iii. Example: U.S. v. Reedy

d. Inventory Searches

i. Pro Tip

ii. Example: U.S. v. Del Rosario

iii. Pro Tip

iv. Red Flags–Courts keep an eye out for the following:

  •   No community caretaking rationale articulated.
  •  Tow called after “thorough” inventory conducted.
  •  Tow not typically called for same situations.
  •  Area searched not typical.
  • Policy not followed.

v. Example: Com. v. Landamus

vi. Example: Blakes v. Superior Court

vii. Ask the class

viii. Watch the Video: Goodbye, My Love

e. K9 Searches

i. Example: US v. Ludwig

ii. Example: US v. Cornejo iii. Example: US v. Hawley iv. Example: State v. Linze

v. Watch the video: Loitering Call vi. Example: US v. Thomas

vii. What if the dog touches the vehicle without handler direction?

viii. Watch the Video: Florida Traffic Stop With Free Air Sniff

ix. Takeaway: Instinctual touching is also problematic under Jones.

x. Example: State v. Howard xi. Example: State v. Dorff

f. PC Search

  1. Step One: Probable Cause
  2. The most powerful word in a police report is the word,“because.”
  3. Step Two- Not Within Curtilage
  4. Apparently Mobile
  5. Disabled Vehicles
  6. Legal Rule: you conduct the search in the same manner as if you had a warrant.
  7. Example: US v. Ross
  8. Watch video: Traffic Stop, PC Search
  9. Watch video: Let’s Put it All Together

g. Passengers

i. Example: US v. Di Re

ii. Pro Tip: Warrantless searches of passengers require a nexus between contraband and passenger.

iii. Example: State v. Wallace

iv. Example

v. Pro Tip: Remember, you need a nexus!

vi. Example: Jordan v. State

vii. Show the class the Dashcam Video

i. Nexus Factors:

  •   Where did dog alert?
  •   Guilty-mind Evidence
  •   Description and Nervousness
  •   Prior History
  •   Plain View Observations

 

Write a Review

Current reviews for Advanced Traffic Stops

36 Reviews

5

R Nikephoros

Excellent course with thought-provoking and educational examples. Both entertaining and informative.

5

Nicholas Ingersoll

Great course! It was a good refresher and reminds me to keep things legit for the best stops!

5

Timothy Dunn

This is a great course which will help any officer make great cases while using these search techniques without violating anyones rights.

5

Amanda Williams

This is an amazing class and has a lot of great information!

5

Tamiko Paulk

Very informative course! It gave me more insight and useful information.

All Students receive

Certificate of Completion

Search & Seizure Survival Guide

Meet your Instructors

At Blue to Gold Law Enforcement Training, we specialize in transforming complex legal principles into actionable knowledge for officers. Our team, including experts who have real-world experience as police officers and district attorneys, brings decades of hands-on experience in both the field and classroom. Our mission is clear: to enhance officer safety and community trust through a deep understanding of case law. Our courses are designed to be engaging and relevant, ensuring officers can confidently apply what they learn in real-world situations. By focusing on critical areas such as search and seizure and the limits of police authority, we aim to minimize legal errors and promote effective, ethical policing. Choose Blue to Gold for training that prepares you to make the right decisions when it counts.

Testimonials

Michael Nipper
Michael Nipper
2024-05-14
Great class everyone that’s wants a basic understanding on how and when to run a K9 should take this class.
Mike Trenkle
Mike Trenkle
2024-05-12
Good information on 1 st amendment with cop and cameras. Thanks for taking the time to make us better officers.
Marc Wolfe
Marc Wolfe
2024-05-12
Blue to Good Law Enforcement Training is great all around from their training course to their customer service. I ordered a package book set and in the set they sent me one of the wrong books which I reached out about. Richard Bandiero immediately got back to me and sent out the correct book. Richard was extremely helpful and professional in a timely manner.
Coley Hebrard
Coley Hebrard
2024-05-09
Great information, well paced and knowledgeable instruction. Great job.
Amanda Williams
Amanda Williams
2024-05-09
Cops and Cameras is a great class! Anthony is such an amazing instructor!
Edna Cordner
Edna Cordner
2024-05-07
Highly recommend!
Hydronous
Hydronous
2024-05-02
I attended the ND Southwest Crime Conference. The Conference was phenomenal. Anthony knew how to engage the classroom. All of the training he provided was by far the best training I have ever been to so far. Blue to Gold definitely knows their stuff and can possibly shape the way we do our jobs as modern police!
Patrick Howle
Patrick Howle
2024-04-17
It’s fascinating to learn about the diverse ways different police departments operate across various states. Each one has its unique procedures, challenges, and approaches to maintaining safety and order.
oscar perez
oscar perez
2024-04-17
Great training that was very beneficial and clearly explained. Highly recommended for all levels of law enforcement.

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